Luckner, John L.


Rude, Harvey

Committee Member

Bowen, Sandra


Special Education


University of Northern Colorado

Type of Resources


Place of Publication

Greeley (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created





196 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


The purpose of this study was to investigate the English learning of a sample of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and English learners (DHH EL) and a sample of students who are English learners (EL). The English language learning of four students who were DHH EL and four students who were EL was explored through a multiple-case study using cross-case analysis. Additional participants who supported the language learning of the students included seven culturally and linguistically diverse teachers (CLD), two teachers of the deaf (TOD), and one audiologist. In this qualitative study, observations, interviews, and artifacts were used to identify similarities and differences in the selected sample of participants as well as how language was assessed and language proficiency levels determined, what the reading levels were, and what curriculum or instructional strategies were used. Similarities that emerged included how language proficiency levels were assessed, the use of explicit instruction and scaffolding, and collaboration. Differences included placement and curriculum, how reading levels were assessed, and the growth in language proficiency. Differences also included influencers of diversity such as cultural backgrounds, home language, and modes of communication. In addition, the students who are DHH EL did not have access to home or first language as compared to the students who are EL. The major themes that emerged were: (a) curriculum, (b) instructional strategies, (c) language levels, (d) reading levels, (e) safe environment, (f) social language, (g) routines and procedures, and (h) collaboration. In addition to a discussion on themes, implications in the areas of practice, teacher preparation, and identification of students were presented. The participants in this study ranged from 6th grade through 12th grade and came from various backgrounds. Some were born in the U.S., while others came from refugee camps in Southeast Asia and Africa. Future research direction should include case studies that are more narrowly diverse and focusing on students from similar backgrounds as well as the English learning of students in the elementary setting.

Degree type


Degree Name




Local Identifiers


Rights Statement

Copyright is held by the author.