Akiko Watabe


Todd, Michael

Committee Member

Karlin, Nancy J.

Committee Member

Jameson, Molly

Committee Member

Luckner, John


Educational Psychology


University of Northern Colorado

Type of Resources


Place of Publication

Greeley (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



185 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


This study examined the relationship between perfectionism, anxiety (i.e., emotional state anxiety, personality trait anxiety, inhibitory anxiety, prospective anxiety, sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment), parenting styles (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), GPA (measured by self-report responses), and SES (measured as parents’ income) as well as a difference in the effect of high or low perfectionism, parenting styles, and levels of GPA and SES on a reward and punishment computer-based learning task among college students. One hundred forty undergraduates completed measures of Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a computer-based learning task involving reward-based and punishment-based trials. Results indicated positive relationships between maladaptive perfectionism dimensions, anxiety factors, and authoritarian parenting style. Furthermore, a direct effect was seen in between anxiety and learning performance on a computer-based task. Indirect effects were seen in between perfectionism, parenting style, and learning performance on a computer-based task. Higher GPA for undergraduates was positively related to adaptive perfectionism dimensions, and lower GPA was negatively linked to adaptive perfectionism dimensions. Perfectionistic students had higher anxiety, such as sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward, inhibitory anxiety, prospective anxiety, and personality trait anxiety, than non-perfectionistic students. Furthermore, perfectionistic students had more authoritarian parents than non-perfectionistic students. Learning performance for both students with higher GPA and students with lower GPA showed an increase in reward trial across four training blocks as training progressed. Learning performance for both students with higher SES and students with lower SES indicated an increase in reward and punishment trials across four training blocks as training progressed. Parents, teachers, counselors, and other higher education professionals should consider how parents foster children to be healthy perfectionists, as well as what factors help students to acquire perfectionism involving adaptive dimensions that assist students in attaining academic success in educational settings. Keywords: perfectionism, anxiety, parenting style, GPA, SES, computer-based learning task

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