Brewer, Robin

Committee Member

Banerjee, Rashida

Committee Member

Graefe, Amy

Committee Member

Weiler, Spencer


School of Special Education


University of Northern Colorado

Type of Resources


Place of Publication

Greeley (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



197 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


Students identified with emotional disabilities (ED) are increasingly being included in the general education academic classrooms. Most general education academic teachers have little training or exposure to the characteristics and interventions associated with students with ED. Behavior-specific praise (BSP) has been shown to be an effective intervention for decreasing problem behaviors in the classroom. Unfortunately, studies have shown that teachers generally provide low rates of praise to secondary students and less so to secondary students with ED. This study used a multiple baseline single-subject design across participants to assess whether the use of within-school consultation intervention which involved regular structured meetings and visual performance feedback influenced the use of BSP, general praise, and reprimands used with students with ED in the general education academic setting. Three general education academic middle school teachers and four observers participated in this study. All teachers were taught to increase their use of BSP through the use of a within-school consultation intervention. Through direct observation, the rates of BSP directed towards the target student with ED were recorded. Results of the study showed that the use of the within-school consultation model increased the rate of BSP towards all three target students with ED. Specific praise rates increased for each general education academic teacher when the within-school consultation intervention was implemented. In addition to BSP rates, the use of general praise increased and the use of reprimands decreased. However, maintenance of the increased rate of BSP was not stable following the termination of the intervention. Implications suggest that one-time training or professional development may not provide enough support to effectively initiate or sustain change in teacher behavior. Results also imply that teachers would rather learn from other teachers. Additionally, results implicated that the use of BSP promotes positive academic and behavioral outcomes.

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