Dauenhauer, Brian


Carson, Russell

Committee Member

McMullen, Jaimie

Committee Member

Moorem Justin B.

Committee Member

Morgan, Thomas


Sport and Exercise Science


University of Northern Colorado

Type of Resources


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Greeley (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



205 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


In this dissertation, support mechanisms for comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) leaders were investigated. In the first study, a systematic review was completed that explored the effectiveness of CSPAP professional development/training. In total, 8,982 records were screened and two articles matched the eligibility criteria and were included within the review. One study examined effectiveness using qualitative methods (Centeio, Erwin, & Castelli, 2014) and the other using quantitative methods (Carson, Castelli, Pulling Kugh, et al., 2014). Due to the limited number of articles that met the search criteria, it can be concluded that there is limited evidence to fully understand how effective trained physical activity leaders (PALs) are in integrating CSPAPs. In study two, a valid and reliable instrument to assess CSPAP policies and practices (CSPAP-Q) was created and refined through three rounds of testing with experts and practitioners. In total, 78 items were tested (respondent characteristics = 8, wellness policy status = 1, physical education (PE) = 22, physical activity (PA) during school = 13, before/after school PA = 14, staff involvement = 9, and family/community engagement = 11). The kappa (κ) average for the entire CSPAP-Q was .60 with PE items having the highest test-retest agreement (κ = .66) and family/community engagement having the lowest (κ =.52). It was concluded that the CSPAP-Q is an acceptable tool for measuring PA policies and practices in schools. Finally, in study three teachers who completed the CSPAP-Q were asked to participate in individual interviews. Seven teachers were interviewed at two time points to develop a deeper understanding of their data process and to gather input on the creation of a data reporting system that aligns with the CSPAP-Q. Results were presented through three overarching themes by data-driven decision making (DDDM) phases and included feedback about the CSPAP-Q data report and how it was used at each phase. The themes were (a) limited experience with data collection and organization (DDDM Phase I), (b) giving meaning to data (DDDM Phase II), and (c) making data-driven decisions (DDDM Phase III). After each interview, participants gave insight, feedback, and recommendations in regard to the formatting and structure of the CSPAP-Q data report. Based on the outcomes from these three studies, it can be concluded that (a) there is currently a dearth of evidence in regards to the effectiveness of CSPAP PAL professional development/trainings on school-wide PA promotion, (b) the CSPAP-Q is a valid and reliable tool that can be utilized to assess school-wide PA policies and practices, and (c) a CSPAP-Q data reporting system can help PALs better understand the current status of PA policies and practices and prioritize areas for action. Implications from this study could guide future research related to how leaders of PA use data and make decisions around the five components of a CSPAP.

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