Johnson, Brian

Committee Member

Tian, Lu

Committee Member

Woody, William Douglas

Committee Member

Schaffer, Jay


Applied Psychology and Counselor Education


University of Northern Colorado

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Greeley (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



313 pages

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Born digital


A growing body of research indicates both potentially positive and negative experiences for sexual minorities with religious/spiritual (R/S) experiences. The current study sought to answer calls for larger samples and quantitative research methods at this intersection of identities by investigating the relationships between sexual minority identity development, religious schemata, R/S struggles, and life satisfaction among a sample of sexual minority adults with R/S experiences (N = 655). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determine the variance explained by sexual identity development factors and religious schemata above and beyond the variance explained by demographic differences when explaining the outcome variables of R/S struggles and life satisfaction. Results showed participants with higher levels of sexual identity exploration and/or higher levels of religious fundamentalism reported higher levels of R/S struggles, whereas those with higher levels of sexual identity integration reported lower levels of R/S struggles. Additionally, participants with higher levels of sexual identity integration reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Interestingly, those with higher levels of religious fundamentalism also reported slightly higher levels of life satisfaction, although this result had a very small effect size and might have minimal practical significance. Age, education level, and relationship status were significant explanatory demographic variables. These results suggested understanding sexual identity development and religious schemata might be important in promoting the well-being of sexual minority individuals with R/S experiences.


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