First Advisor

Hulac, David

First Committee Member

Kriescher, Stephanie

Second Committee Member

Sundeen, Todd

Third Committee Member

Stellion, Megan

Document Type


Date Created



School psychologists, among other educators, experienced a rapid transition to online educational service delivery in response to the Coronavirus-19 pandemic and related stay-at-home orders in March of 2020. Students and educators experienced significant difficulties throughout the pandemic, including increased mental health needs. Educators and parents may have required additional support from school psychologists in order to best support students’ learning online. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how school psychological services in public United States primary and secondary schools changed and adapted in response to the Coronavirus-19 pandemic. School psychology practitioners completed a survey where they provided virtual resources they utilized throughout the Coronavirus-19 pandemic, the amount of time spent in different service areas (i.e., consultation, assessment, and intervention), mental health, perceptions of their effectiveness of virtual service delivery, and feelings of crisis self-efficacy. Results show that school psychologists experienced a significant decrease in the amount of time spent in assessment and intervention and a significant increase in the amount of time spent in consultation and collaboration in response to the Coronavirus-19 pandemic. Upon the 2020-2021 academic year, the percentage of time spent in service areas returned to pre-pandemic levels. There was not a significant relationship between school psychologists’ reported mental health symptoms, feelings of crisis self-efficacy, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their service delivery.

Abstract Format



166 pages

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Copyright is held by the author.