First Advisor

Ku, Heng-Yu

Document Type


Date Created



The aim of this research study was to analysis on-campus and online Ph.D. programs in educational technology and any associated specialties in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common titles; core, elective, and research courses; structured types of comprehensive examinations; and possible employment opportunities based on program mission statements. The research design for this study was quantitative content analysis. Data for this study were collected from six different sources. The current study found 43 institutions offered campus-based degree programs and four offered online degree programs in educational technology and any associated specialty. In addition, the study found 28 different degree titles; the most common titles were Curriculum and Instruction, Learning Design and Technology, Instructional Technology, Learning Technologies, and Instructional Design and Technology. The current study found 313 core courses were offered by the Ph.D. programs at various institutions; the most common core courses were Instructional Design, Advanced Instructional Design, Curriculum Theory, Needs Assessment, Internship in Instructional Technology, Instructional Systems Design, and Theories of Learning and Instruction. In addition, the current study found 157 elective courses were offered by the Ph.D. programs; the most common elective courses were Multicultural Education, Foundations of Distance Learning, Educational Foundations, and Message Design. Furthermore, the current study found 256 research courses were offered by the Ph.D. programs at various institutions; the most common research courses were Quantitative Methods, Qualitative Methods, Qualitative Research, Educational Research Methods, Multivariate Analysis, Introduction to Qualitative Research in Education, and Mixed Methods. Moreover, the current study found 26 universities mentioned various comprehensive examination methods. The most common structured types of comprehensive examinations were written examination, oral examination, qualifying exams, preliminary exam, portfolio assessment, and closed book. In addition, according to each institution’s mission statement, numerous employment opportunities are available for students in education agencies, position in university settings, corporate sector, research and development, and government. Furthermore, this study provided implications, recommendations, limitations, and recommendations for future research.


Analyzed Ph.D. Programs, Content Analysis, Curricula, Curriculum, Educational Technology, Employment Opportunities


155 pages

Local Identifiers


Rights Statement

Copyright belongs to the author.