Murry, Francie R.

Committee Member

Melloy, Kristine

Committee Member

Robinson, Jason

Committee Member

Karlin, Nancy


College of Education and Behavioral Sciences: School of Special Education, Special Education


University of Northern Colorado

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Place of Publication

Greeley, (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



226 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and use of Tier 1 interventions found in the MTSS literature by general education (GE) elementary school teachers when students with behavioral challenges are included in their classrooms. The researcher utilized a purposive sampling procedure and targeted teachers from the Hail Region School District in Saudi Arabia. A 98-question survey consisting of five sections was used to measure the variables as presented to obtain data from 95 Saudi Arabian general education elementary school teachers. It focused on four themes: (a) Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion of Students with Challenging Behaviors; (b) Teachers’ Knowledge of MTSS Tier 1 Strategies (i.e., Knowledge of Foundational Behavior Management Strategies, Knowledge About Surface Management Strategies, Knowledge of Positive Consequences, Knowledge of Negative Consequences); (c) Teachers’ Use of Specific MTSS Tier 1 Strategies; and (d) Teachers’ Use of MTSS Tier 1 Strategies (i.e., Teacher’s Use of Foundational Behavioral Management Strategies, Teacher’s Use of Surface Management Strategies, Teacher’s Use of Positive Consequences, Teacher’s Use of Negative Consequences). The results of the study showed that the majority of the GE elementary school teachers who responded that they knew about MTSS Tier 1 strategies, did not know how to use the strategies. The findings also showed that the sources where the respondents learned about the strategies were: a website on the Internet, a colleague shared it, read about it in a book, and a workshop on behavior management. When the teachers’ use of MTSS Tier 1 strategies were compared with their years of teaching experience, the results revealed that those with more years of teaching experience stated they knew about and more often used evidence-based MTSS behavior management strategies when they had students with challenging behaviors included in their classrooms.

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Available for download on Sunday, May 01, 2022