First Advisor

Nicholas Pullen

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Document Type


Date Created



In the United States, approximately 2.0 million people will be diagnosed with cancer in 2024 (Siegel et al., 2024). 15% of those diagnoses will be breast cancer with 2% resulting in death (Siegel et al., 2024). Using normal breast tissue, metastatic breast cancer, and relapsed breast cancer to compare the gene expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle could help with diagnosis and targeted treatment of altered metabolism. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic processes; glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Normal cells use cellular respiration to convert nutrients into ATP (Chandel, 2021). Cancer cells undergo a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect (Chen et al., 2007). This effect causes cancer cells to favor glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylations in aerobic conditions (Chen et al., 2007). When metastatic and relapsed breast cancer is compared to normal breast tissue an increase in the expression of glycolytic enzymes is not observed but a decrease of enzymes associated with the citric acid cycle is. The obtained p-values indicate that the difference in gene expression is statistically significant but not if the metastatic or relapsed expression has increased or decreased compared to normal expression. If gene expression is altered enough to differentiate them from normal breast cells, drugs and other complementary health interventions (e.g. nutrition and exercise) can be developed to target cancerous breast cells while not affecting normal breast cells.

Abstract Format



Medicine and Health Sciences


27 pages

Rights Statement

Copyright is held by the author