Jose I. Suarez

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Although the novels of Austin Coates, Henrique de Senna Fernandes, and Rodrigo Leal de Carvalho’s depict life in the former Portuguese colony of Macau, their individual perspectives reflect a contrast between literary colonialism and coloniality. A British public servant, Coates perceives Macanese reality through the competing biased eyes of an Englishman resenting Portuguese culture and administration in the colony; Leal de Carvalho, a Portuguese resident of Macau, romantically depicts the social nature of Portuguese colonialism; Senna Fernandes, a native Macanese educated in Portugal, offers his interpretation of the colony’s Eurasian inhabitants vis-à-vis its Chinese population. The aim of this article is to contrast the literary representation of three issues in Coates’s City of Broken Promises, Fernandes’s The Bewitching Braid, and Carvalho’s The Count and his Three Wives: exoticism, cultural hybridity, and subaltern identity.


Author Jose Suarez was the 2010 recipient of the A.M. & Jo Winchester Distinguished Scholar Award, given annually to a UNC scholar at the rank of associate professor or higher who has demonstrated continued excellence in scholarly activity for at least five years.