Tian, Lu

Committee Member

Wright, Stephen

Committee Member

Weingartner, Angela

Committee Member

Wesley, Cindy


College of Education and Behavioral Sciences; Department of Applied Psychology and Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology


University of Northern Colorado

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Greeley, (Colo.)


University of Northern Colorado

Date Created



163 pages

Digital Origin

Born digital


Early research examining the impact of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health and well-being of U.S. adult residents suggested the majority were experiencing an increase in anxiety, depression, and trauma-related symptoms. The current study responded to calls for mental health professionals to view the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of mass trauma and sought to understand whether U.S. adult residents reported experiencing posttraumatic growth (PTG) in response to this mass trauma. Consistent with Tedeschi and Calhoun’s (2004) theoretical framework of PTG, the current study attempted to replicate a mediational model that had been used to explain the process of PTG and determine whether deliberate rumination mediated the relationship between intrusive rumination and PTG in the current sample. Mindfulness as a moderator of this mediation was also explored in an effort to add to the preliminary evidence linking mindfulness with rumination and PTG. Eight-two (82) participants in the current study completed the Impact of Events Scale-COVID19 to assess for traumatic stress associated with pandemic, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory to assess for posttraumatic growth, the Event-Related Rumination Inventory to measure intrusive and deliberate rumination, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale to assess for mindfulness. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data and both moderation and mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS Macro. Results showed 82 participants who endorsed significant levels of distress in response to the COVID-19 pandemic were also experiencing PTG in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consistent with Tedeschi and Calhoun’s theoretical framework, deliberate rumination mediated the relationship between intrusive rumination and PTG, suggesting individuals were experiencing the same sequential process of PTG in response to the COVID-19 pandemic as others had in response to traumatic events such as natural disasters and other life-threatening events. Trait mindfulness did not appear to have a significant impact on PTG or the proposed mediation model.

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